In 2012, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation estimated an annual net material cost savings opportunity for the European Union of US$380 to 630 billion, if it were to transition to a more circular economy in its watershed 'Towards the Circular Economy' report.
This report articulated a shared narrative, pulling together movements such as cradle-to-cradle, biomimicry, industrial ecology and blue economy. Businesses and governments alike stepped up their efforts, and collaborated.
Countries, states and cities are now actively integrating and adopting circular economy principles to guide future economic and environmental policies and practices (including Japan, China, European Union, Scotland, Denmark, Flanders, Wales and London).
On the corporate side, major global businesses such as Google, Unilever, Nike, Cisco and Renault are investing heavily in the circular economy, with the capacity to influence supply chains worldwide.
Explore some of the groundbreaking studies from across the globe.